چهارشنبه 2 مرداد 1398
24 July 2019
Highlighter
آيا توقف صادرات محصولات فولادي به نفع كشور است؟ »
حضرت آيت الله خامنه اي در ديدار هيات دولت: يكي از مواردي كه بايد در جهت گيري‌هاي كلي دولت مورد توجه قرار بگيرد، مساله‌ سند چشم‌انداز است.اين سند در واقع نقشه‌ راه 20ساله‌ ماست. »
حمایت از بنگاههای تولیدی-تجاری با ‏ایجاد محیطی مناسب و رقابت پذیر »

مقاله چاپ شده در مجله بین المللی تحقیقات علمی و مهندسی

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

یکی دیگر از مقالات دکتر محمد ابراهیم مداحی در زمینه روانشناسی تحت عنوان  " مطالعه کیفیت زندگی و ویژگیهای شخصیت 5 عاملی NEOبا اضطراب از مرگ دانشجویان" است که در مجله بین المللی تحقیقات علمی و مهندسی به چاپ رسیده است. این مقاله را در ادامه مشاهده می نمایید و فایل آن نیز برای دانلود موجود می باشد.

The Study of the Quality of Life and Personality Traits of NEO Five Factors Concerning Death Anxiety in Shahed University Students

Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Maddahi,Dr.Javad Khalatbari, Mona Samadzadeh, Mehdi Amraei, Reza Ahmadi, Mohammad Mojtaba Keikhayfarzaneh

 

Abstract— The present research aims to consider the relationship between quality of life and personality traits and death anxiety. Personality traits consists of five components of NEO five factors questionnaire including Neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, extraversion and being conscientious, respectively. 55 Shahed University students were selected as controls. Quality of life scales for adults (pwi-A) of Cummins (2004) is used to assess the quality of life of the subjects, and the Neo-short form questionnaire of Costa and Mckery is used to assess the subject’s personality traits, and Templer questionnaire is used to assess the subject’s death anxiety. The correlation coefficient is used to statistically analyze the research data. The obtained results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between quality of life and agreeable personality traits and a significant negative correlation between neurotic personality traits. Additionally, there is a positive non-significant relationship between quality of life and other personality traits ( extraversion, openness, and being conscientious) but a significant negative correlation  with death anxiety. There is also a positive significant correlation with death anxiety and neurotic personality traits, a negative  significant correlation with agreeable personality traits and a negative non-significant correlation with other personality traits ( extraversion, openness and being conscientious).

Index Terms— quality f life, NEO five factors of personality traits, death anxiety.  

——————————   u   ——————————

1   Introduction                                                                    

 

w

 

E are always affected by death phobia and we are come across by it many times during our life and then we defend against it which is mostly based on denial and it helps in coping with death. However, we cannot remove it from our mind and we are always affected by it in our dreams and imaginations. We are also fascinated by death in childhood and one of the most important evolutionary tasks is to cope with the fear of annihilation [1]. Because of the fact that there is a close relationship between death and life and also the individual’s personality traits can be effective in life improvement and also the amount of death phobia and the research is limited in Iran, this question is raised that is there is a relationship between quality of life and personality traits and death anxiety? If so, what variables and personality  traits are effective in? since so many personality traits and variables has not yet been identified with death anxiety and also death and mental problems related to death anxiety such as phobia, existential anxiety, hypochondriasis  and obsession, etc, is increasing [2],  it seems that such an applicable and basic research are very important and so necessary. In addition, identifying these variables and personality traits associated with death anxiety can be lead to a better understanding of their relationship which is so helpful in increasing the quality of life and community health of researchers , therapists, psychologists and psychiatrists.

————————————————

·   Shahed University, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran.

·   Department of Psychology, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran

·   University of Science & Culture, Department of Family Therapy, Tehran, Iran

·   Shahed University, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran.

·   Shahed University, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran.

·   Department of Psychology, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

 

 

 

     In a research conducted by Alward and colleagues (2006), the relationship between religious variables and depression and death anxiety has been examined. The results indicated that those who have low amount of depression and death anxiety have much stronger faith and are more thoughtful to the life after death. The findings also discussed this issue that religious faith is more related to death anxiety than the religious practices. Manada Watt and Kawchehlova (2007) studied the effect of age, gender and environmental conditions on the amount of death anxiety in elderly people in India. A sample consists of 299 people with the mean age of 70 years have been selected for this reason. The research results showed that women and older subjects and also those who are living with their families significantly indicate higher amount of death anxiety . The results achieved from the effects of age and gender related to death anxiety in this Indian sample is the same as those of the western samples.

     In a research conducted by Soheil and Akram ( 2002 ), the relationship between death anxiety and gender, age and religion among 132 randomly selected subjects have been studied. The research results showed that older women and also those subjects who have weaker faiths showed more fear to an imminent death. It is also indicated that women and the subjects who had weaker faith showed more anxiety concerning various aspects of death such as short life passing, complete isolation affected by death, fear of destruction and disintegration of body after death compared with their peers [3].

      Kowin Wersnikof (1985) studied the relationship between death anxiety and sense of purpose in life and perception of time. The research showed that people with high death anxiety complain  about diminished sense of purpose to their life. In an another study studied the relationship between death anxiety and age, Rasmosen (1996) showed that the difference in death anxiety may be because of the third variable namely psychological maturity indicated in the theory proposed by Ericson. Rasmosen (1996)  showed that psychological maturity is a stronger maturity in predicting the death anxiety related to age by itself [3].

     Diavla and colleagues (2003) studied in a research the relationship between death anxiety, their attitudes towards elderly people and individual anxiety related to among elderly men and women. A sample consisted of 197 men and women were selected for this reason. The research results showed that negative attitudes towards other adults can be predicted by individual anxieties related to old age and death, especially fearing from unknown things. Women score higher than their male counterparts in the sub-scales of fear of dying and multi-dimensional fear of death. The reports are also indicated that the African-American subjects achieved higher levels than Caucasian subjects in each three scales of multi-dimensional fear of death, fear of the unknown things and fear of death in awareness [3].

     Sarvandian and Hassanpour ( 2003) studied, in a research, the comparison between sense of loneliness and fear of death among women and elderly men living in Ahwaz city, and selected a sample size of 60 women and 30 men ( by simple random sampling ) for doing this research, and the results showed that there is a significant difference between the fear of death and loneliness among elderly men and women.

      Considering this issue is interesting from various dimensions, firstly, it can theoretically be  joined in this kind of research set; in particular, the research is limited in this regard. Secondly, because the world is developing towards being modernized and the quality of life has been increased today, this research can be used to show the impact of quality of life on death anxiety. Thirdly, since in psychology, it is aimed for reducing disorders and enhancing the amount communities’ mental health, this research could be a turning point for what variables are effective in increasing and decreasing death anxiety. And finally, if  the personality traits associated with anxiety can be predicted, more success can be achieved in reducing anxiety and increasing the quality of life of the communities.

2   Research Tool

Three research tools are used to study the regarded variables in this  research including: the quality of life questionnaire for adults (PWI-A) of Cummins, NEO personality traits questionnaire, Costa’s and McCurry’s short form and Templer’s death anxiety questionnaire.

 •The quality of life questionnaire for adults (PWI-A) of Cummins.

 •NEO-FFI personality traits questionnaire.

 •Templer’s death anxiety questionnaire.

     The quality of life questionnaire for adults (PWI-A) is used to consider the quality of life of the questionnaire for adults (PWI-A). This scale is made to be used  by general adult population (Kamins, 2004). The questionnaire contains seven satisfaction articles that each one is concerned to one scope of quality of life. Each of the questions is scored between 0-10 from the subjects. The scores achieved in each seven question were added up to obtain the general score of quality of life of the scale and then it is compared with the normative data. Correlation coefficient resulted from twice application for the intended questionnaire is r=0.81 and Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaire was 0.90 in the mentioned sample, respectively. The research findings indicate desirable reliability for the quality of life questionnaire (PWI-A) in the Iranian community (Naiinian & Sheri under publication) [4]. The validity is also obtained 61% which indicates acceptable convergent validity of the quality of life questionnaire (PWI-A) for the Iranian community.

      The quality of life questionnaire (NEO-FFI) is used to consider the personality traits of NEO-FFI questionnaire. This tool includes 60 questions and there is 12 articles to each factor which this articles were chosen according to having the highest load factor associated with the desired trait. Response to this articles is possible in the form of  5-degrees Likert scale and the dimensions such as mental irritation, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and responsibility are assessed (Roushan Chesli and colleagues, 2006) [5].

3   Reliability

The results of several studies indicate that the NEO-FFI sub-scales have good internal consistency. For example, Costa and McCurry reported the alpha coefficient between 0.68 ( for agreeableness) and 0.86 ( for mental irritation). Helden reported the alpha coefficient of this five factors in the range of 0.76 ( for agreeableness) and 0.87 ( for mental irritation). In another study, CRonbach’s alpha was between in the range of 0.73 ( for agreeableness) and 0.87 ( for mental irritation), respectively. It is indicated in an another research the appropriate  internal consistency ( higher than 0.70) of  five factors, and in an another research conducted by ( Roshan Chelsi and colleagues, 2006), Cronbach’s alpha is shown for mental irritation, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and responsibility as 0.84, 0.75, 0.74, 0.75 and 0.83,  respectively [6].

4   Validity

McCurry and Costa mentioned that the shortened tool of NEO-FFI is exactly compatible with its complete form namely NEO-PI so that the shortened form scales have a high correlation of 0.68 with full-scale version of the NEO questionnaire. They reported in an another research that NEO -five -factor validity based on the spouse and peers assessments  is in the range of 0.24 to 0.36 ( for responsibility) and 0.48 to 0.65 ( agreeableness). It has been reported in this study that this tool determines 85% of  variance in the convergent validity [6].

5   Templer’s death  anxiety questionnaire

The Templer’s  questionnaire is used to consider the death anxiety. This scale is a tool to measure death anxiety which is mostly applied one in its own types. This scale is a self-applied questionnaire consists of 14 correct and incorrect questions. The scores ranged from 0-14 and high score indicates high rate of death anxiety. In a research conducted by Rajabi and Bohrani in Ahwaz University, the validity coefficient of the average scale of death anxiety  was 0.62 and Cronbach’s alpha for the whole questionnaire was 0.73. Correlation coefficient is also calculated between death anxiety and the death worry scale 0.40 and with apparent anxiety scale 4 [7].

6   Research Methodology

The current research statistical community is all the male students (19-24 years) of Humanities College, Shahed University based on the available sampling method, in which 55 male subjects of Humanities College referred to the reference section of this college were chosen.

7   Research Design and Data Analysis Methods

The present research is a correlation one aims to consider the relationship the concerned variables in this study. The Pearson correlation  measurement method has been used to analyze the achieved data.

8   Results

The results of statistical analysis of data regarding the concerned hypotheses indicates as the follows:

 

TABLE 1
The results of Correlation test between Death anxiety and Neurotic personality traits

Correlation Coefficient Results

Statistics

The Amount of Correlation

0.425

Significance Level

0.001

Numbers

55

 

According to table 1, correlation is significant between death anxiety and neurotic personality traits with 99% confidence. The obtained results show  that neuroticism is increased when death anxiety is increased and neuroticism is divided to some disorders by itself as anxiety, phobia, hypochondriasis , obsession, depression, etc. As a result, high death anxiety means making the situations appropriate for a series of mental disorders which sub-branches of  neuroticism. However, there is a negative non-significant relationship between anxiety and other personality traits such as extroversion, openness and being conscientious.

 

TABLE 2
Correlation test results Between Death anxiety and Quality of Life

Correlation coefficient results

Statistic

The amount of Correlation

-0.462

Significance level

0.000

Number

55

 

According to table 2, there is a significant level between death anxiety and quality of life with 99%  confidence, that is, the more  a person scared of death, the less his/her quality of life, and vice versa, that is, the more a person’s quality of life, the less he/she has death anxiety. There is a relationship between death anxiety and a series of mental disorders (neuroticism), and because some mental problems are created for individuals by death anxiety, therefore It affects on individual’s understanding of personal welfare welfare (quality of life defined by Frants is the same as our understanding of personal welfare ) [8] and there can be significant correlation amongst them, which this research result is compatible with  the one conducted by Naderi and Esmaili ( 2008 ) concerning death anxiety and life satisfaction.

 

TABLE 3
Correlation test results between Neurotic personality traits and Quality of Life

Correlation coefficient results

statistic

The amount of correlation

-0.492

Significance level

0.000

Number

55

 

According to table 3, there is a significant correlation between the two variables with 99% confidence. The obtained results indicate that the more the quality of life is increased, the more the neurotic personality traits is increased including depression, anxiety, hypochondriasis, fear, etc, and vice versa; that is, the more individual’s welfare and socio-economical conditions is desirable, the less his/her mental problems, and consequently,  the less he/she prone to mental disorders. Quality of life defined by Sowan and colleagues is a multidimensional and intellectual concept including conceived emotional and mental-physical performance by the person [8]. Therefore, if someone’s quality of life is high, his/her neuroticism related to environment and the problems concerned will be decreased.

 

TABLE 4
Correlation test results Between Death anxiety and Personality traits of Agreeableness

Correlation coefficient results

Statistic

The amount of correlation

-0.393

Significance level

0.003

Number

55

 

According to table 4, there is a significant correlation between the two variables with 99% confidence, and this indicates that when someone’s death anxiety is increased, the amount of his/her agreeableness is decreased and vice versa, therefore, it is confirmed that the relationship between the two variables is significant. Since an agreeable one is basically altruist. He is sympathetic towards others and is eager to help them and makes believe that others are mutually helpful and have good relationship with people and these features, especially having relationship with others, can decrease death anxiety.

 

TABLE 5
Correlation test results Between quality of Life  and Personality traits of Agreeableness

Correlation coefficient results

Statistic

The amount of correlation

0.266

Significance level

0.50

Number

55

 

According to the results mentioned above, there is a significant correlation between the two variables with 95% confidence, and this result indicates that having positive and effective relationship with others can increase their quality of life, and because an agreeable one is basically altruist, they are  more agreeable and popular  than antagonistic ones and these features can also increase quality of life which  is significantly achieved by having relationship with others.

9   Results and Discussion

The research results indicates that there is a negative significant correlation  between death anxiety and quality of life which these findings are compatible with those of previous studies (Naderi and Esamilie (2008). There are also positive and negative correlations between death anxiety and five NEO characteristics as neuroticism, agreeableness, being conscientious, flexibility and extraversion, respectively; that is to say, It has a significant positive correlation with neuroticism, a negative significant relationship with agreeableness, and a negative non-significant correlation with being conscientious, a negative non-significant  correlation with flexibility and finally a negative non-significant correlation with extraversion. It can be generally said that there is a negative non-significant correlation with five factor features of  NEO personality traits except for neuroticism and agreeableness. There is also a positive and negative correlation between five factor features of NEO personality traits and quality of life. There is a positive significant correlation with quality of life and agreeableness and a positive non-significant correlation with extraversion, openness and being conscientious but a negative non-significant correlation with neuroticism, and this is compatible with the quality of life definition proposed by Loukarnin and Hentinen (1997) (quality of life is attributed to health) [4].

     Quality of life, especially quality of life associated with health is affected through individual’s experiences, faiths, expectations, emotions and attitudes [9]. It can therefore be said that having high quality of life is positively related to health, and it can be concluded, based on these findings, that death anxiety can have many effects on individual’s personality and makes change his views towards life. Because personality is a determining factor to have relationship with external world, since if death anxiety made an effect in personality, it would also has  an influence on individual’s relationship with environment and it can change individual’s quality of life which is achieved by a combination of their personality traits with environmental factors. These findings are interesting and are worth being considered by later researchers and experiments in this field which is must be more and more  paid attention to.

References

[1]             Yaloum, Ervin (1939), art therapy, Tehran, Karvan Publications.

[2]             Motamedi, Gholamhussein (2007), human beings and death, an introduction to identifying death, first publication, 2nd edition, Tehran, Markaz Pess.

[3]             Roushani, Khadijeh ( 2009), “ the relationship between intellectual  and social intelligence with death anxiety in elderly people inhabited in Ahwaz city, General Psychology MA, Azad University, Ahwaz branch.

[4]             Mirjavadi, Sayedzohre ( 2010), “ the study of the relationship between occupational stress and mental  health and quality of life in Tehran Police Personnel, BA student of Shahed University.

[5]             Altafi Shirmard, Reza ( 2009), “ the study and comparison between power and personality traits of the individuals addicted and non-addicted to drugs , MA student of Psychology, Shahed University.

[6]             Farshbaf, Khoshnazar, Esmaiel (2006), “ the study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and personality among the Shahed University Students, BA student of Psychology, Shahed University.

[7]             Rajabi, Mahmoud ( 2001) “ Templer’s death anxiety test standardization”, Journal of Psychology, Shahdid Chamran University of Ahwaz.

[8]               Ferransc.,Powersm. Quality of life index: Development & propertied,  Journal of Advanced Nursing.1993.15:1376-1387 .          

[9]     Karlsson I, Berglin E, Larsson P A.(2000) Sense of cotherence: Qo I before & after coronary arteyby pass surgery : Alongitudinal study .Journal of Advanced Nursing. 31(6): 1383-1392PDF

MAGHALE2files/Paper ID -I069576(1).pdf.

Comments (3)
عالی بود مقاله تون...
3یکشنبه, 09 تیر 1392 18:17
کریم عباسی
عالی بود مقاله تون...مرسی...جدیدا هیچ مقاله ای چاپ نکردین آقای دکتر؟اگر مقاله جدیدتری دارین حتما در سایت قرار دهید.متشکر
تشکر
2جمعه, 02 دی 1390 15:25
شکری
با سلام خدمت جناب دکتر مداحی.من در زمینه روانشناسی تحصیل می کنم و خیلی علاقه مندم که در این باب مطالب بیشتری بیاموزم.هیچ وقت فکر نمی کردم یک سایت شخصی که متعلق به یک دکتر روانشناس است این همه مطالب و مقالات ارزنده ای داشته باشد.خیلی خوشحالم که با این سایت آشنا شدم.مقالات شما بسیار پربار و تأثیرگذار است.با وجود اساتید همانند شما در رشته روانشناسی ما به خود می بالیم.با تشکر از زحمات شما.
......
1یکشنبه, 27 آذر 1390 06:22
فیروز آبادی
با سلام خدمت استاد گرامی.استاد سایتتون عالی عالی عالی عالی عالیه.....مثل خودتون ماهه.مرسی.

نظر بگذارید

نام شما:
موضوع:
نظر:
joomir.com