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مقاله "سبکهای فرزند پروری"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"اثربخشی فرزند پروری مثبت و نقاشی بر بهبود مشکلات فرزندان و سبکهای فرزند پروری " نام مقاله ی دیگری از دکتر محمد ابراهیم مداحی است که در سپتامبر 2011 در مجله بین المللی علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته به چاپ رسیده است.در ادامه متن مقاله و فایل آن برای دانلود موجود می باشد.


 

 

 

 

 

 

Efficacy of Positive Parenting and Painting on Improving Children’s Behavior Problems and Parenting Styles

 

 


Dr.Rita Liyaghat

Department of Psychology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

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Dr.Mohammad Ebrahim Maddahi

Shahed University, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran

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Dr.Javad Khalatbari

Department of Psychology, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran

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Mona Samadzadeh

University of Science & Culture, Department of Family Therapy, Tehran, Iran

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Abstract— Objectives: Parenting style has a significant impact on the natural development of children. Therefore , this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Positive Parenting Program also Known as Triple – p, and painting on the improvement of parenting methods , children 's behavioral problems , mothers' psychological problems and marital issues .

Method: In an interactive semi – experimental study (pretest , post – test ), 200 mothers working who had at least one child , were evaluated. Data were gathered before and after the sessions, using Demographic Questionnaire , Parenting Scale , Being a Parent Scale, Parent Problem Checklist , Dyadic Adjustment Scale Depression ,Anxiety Stress Scale , Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)  and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Constructive parenting methods were taught in 8 two – hour sessions. Data were analyzed using descriptive  statistics and repeated  measures analysis of variance .

Results: The mean age of mothers participating in the study was 36.67±5.27 . The results  related to SDQ in children showed that a change in the mean total score of SDQ at the end of the intervention is statistically significant (P< 0.01) . Based on the general change , the mean scores related to the measures of Parenting Scale (P<0.01) , Being a Parent (P<0.01) , Parent Problem (p<0.01) , and disagreement between parents (p<0.01)  were statistically significant . In the dyadic adjustment scale the mean score of adjustment changed from 21.25±4.58, which was not statistically significant . The difference in the indicators of depression , anxiety and psychological pressure were also significant .

Conclusion: Positive parenting education can be effective in the improvement of different aspects of parenting.

Keywords- Child Behavior ;Positive Parenting ;Painting

                                                                                                                                                                 I.           Introduction

The parents of children affected to emotional problems are not sure of their parental role and assess the training of their children so stressful and they are in conflict with their spouse. Therefore, the efforts to promote children’s  mental health needs to address the quality of  child education and the quality of child-mother relationship (Sanders, 2004). The Webster-Stratton’s parenting style implemented step by step in 10 sessions and various methods as punishment, encouragement, taking order and management of child’s  behavior in the framework of intervening methods including applying the role of education is implemented, the Soudman’s intervening styles is implemented for natural children’s parents and those affected to psychiatric problems (Patterson, Mockford and Stwart-brown, 2005).

On the other hand, self-esteem and feeling efficacy of parents in managing children’s behavior are examined in some studies and improving self-esteem in increasing the child-mother’s effective  interaction quality have been reported. The high level of self-esteem in mother is considered as  a supportive factor against child’s behavioral problems which is resulted in the increasing of self-confidence, improving social and academic performance and also reducing the depression and anxiety. On the other hand, limited self-esteem is resulted to using harsh and irritating methods in child’s  upbringing which leads to the continuity of children’s behavioral problems.   ( Sanders and Wooly, 2005).

Sanders and Wooly (2005) studied the relationship between three levels of self-esteem and its effect on child upbringing performance in both branches of mothers referred and non-referred to clinic, and the first group of mothers had lower self-esteem and they reported self-esteem as a strong predictor of parenting style in both groups.

Behavioral Family Interventions (BFI) is made based on social learning and having experimental support and is widely used for a large community (Morawaska and Sanders, 2006).

Evidence derived from controlled trials (BFI ) showed the assessed methods in social-mental interventions. But only a small population of parents participated in these methods of child’s upbringing.

Sanders and Wooly (2005) developed the multifaceted education program and evidence- based for training parents and supporting them. This program has been developed based on the pattern of social learning and aims to consider  the factors related to the formation of emotional and behavioral problems in children. The aim of this program called Triple-P (positive parenting program) is increasing the parent’s adequacy in a large part of the community. This program has five levels due to having different levels in functions insufficiency and different needs of parents and child (Tumer, Dadds and Sanders, 2002).

                                                                                                                                                               II.         Methodology

in this method which is the type of interventional-semi experimental, educating constructive training methods to  mothers was performed based on the Triple-P training program and painting therapy. The participants had at least one 2-12 year old child and somehow had problems in training their child have been selected. These people are invited by calling up and were divided into groups of 12-14 members. The call up was implemented to the levels of university units and the affiliated hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Volunteers mothers were assessed in terms of the criteria to being entered the study. For those who had the entry criteria the program was comprehensively described and then informed consent was obtained. They were given the questionnaires and were collected after completion. After giving the trainings in the last session, the subjects also responded to the questionnaire.

The training program of Triple-P was designed by Sanders and colleagues (2005) in Kuinsland  University of Australia and its implementation permit was taken based on an agreement between the Institute of Cognitive Sciences and the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Iran and the mentioned university. This program is presented in five levels in which one level is assigned to group training of parents to improve the parenting style skills. This training program is hold in 8 two hour weekly session in which the items desired by professionals trained by the help of training films are implemented for mothers during the first four sessions. Mothers achieve the knowledge and skills needed regarding parenting through practices, playing role, group discussions, doing homework at home in these sessions. Topics discussed in these sessions include: causes of child abuse, the ways to teach proper behaviors to children, how to control children’s inappropriate behaviors at home, difficult situations and constructive ways of rewarding and punishing. Each participant are considered 15-20 minutes during the next session and the problems regarding implementing the program were discussed.

This training program  contains a book for parents, and educational film and healing mica for training. In an three year educational workshop hold by Cognitive Sciences College, the specialty doctors of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry received the necessary training by Alan Ralph from Australia and these people were re-assessed and succeeded to gain the special permission after three months in a workshop. These items were translated by child and adolescents psychiatrists in Medical Sciences College and was experimentally implemented in 50 families and then the desired changes were made according to the social and cultural attitudes.

Data were collected by the following questionnaires:

  •Family Situation Questionnaire: it contains information on family and children, educational and occupational status of parents and generally physical and mental health status of parents and children.

  •Parenting Scale: this scale is made by Arnold and O’Leary (1993). The coefficient obtained for internal consistency for the entire test was 84.0, for subscales of negligence, excessive reactions and verbosity has been reported 82.0, 83.0 and 63.0, respectively. The reliability coefficient of this questionnaire by retest method for the total mentioned scales and subscales have been reported 84, 83.0, 82.0 and 79.0, respectively (ibid).

There is a 30 scale questions that assesses the parent’s answers and reactions concerning children’s misbehavior from one to seven degrees. This evaluation will show whether parents take constructive educational practices or not. This scale has three sub-indices and an overall score. Total score and factor score are considered for each indicator. Factor score is the total score of each indicator divided by the number of evaluated cases for each indicator. Sub-indices include: negligence, excessive reaction  and verbalization.

  •Being a parent scale: it is a questionnaire consists of 16 cases which assesses the feeling of parents of their being a parent, and whether they have the necessary abilities for being a parent based on their own attitudes. This  scale has also two subscales as satisfaction and efficiency. Johnston and Mash (1989) reported the alpha internal consistency of the total scale as 79.0 and for sub-scales of efficiency and satisfaction as 76.0 and 75.0 alpha, respectively.

  •Parent Problem Checklist: it is a checklist made of 16 cases which assesses the differences in parents and their abilities concerning parenting and cooperation with each other in the field of family management. It is  made by Dadds and Powel (1991). Its internal consistency is 0.70 and reliability coefficient by retest method is reported 0.90 (ibid).

  •Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale: this 42-case scale assesses the amount of anxiety, depression and mental pressure. The anxiety, depression and mental pressures are also separately presented in addition to total score of this scale. This scale was designed by Lovibond (1995) and the reliability coefficient of depression sub-scale, anxiety and stress are reported 0.91, 0.84 and 0.90, respectively(ibid).

  •Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: this questionnaire was designed by Goodman (1997) and the mean of Cronbach’s alpha is reported 0.73.  He also reported the reliability coefficient by the retest method as 62.0 for four to six months (ibid). This questionnaire has 25 questions and the children’s behavioral and emotional problems are assessed based on their parents. The scoring criteria is from 0 to 2 which is considered for “ it is not true”, “ it is somewhat true”, and “ it is totally true”. The total score can be varied between zero to 40. This questionnaire has five indicators (excessive activities, emotional problems, conduct problems and problem in having relationship with counterparts and appropriated behaviors indicators). The mentioned questionnaire has been validated in the Iranian community (Tehrani doust, Shahrvivar, Pakbaz, Ahmadi and Rezaie, 2006).

  •The amount of participant’s satisfaction questionnaire: this questionnaire was completed by the end of the period and the amount of participant’s satisfaction of the training program are evaluated. The mentioned tools are translated by Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Institute and its questions were adopted with cultural criteria of Iranian community and then it was used in a study guide.

the collected data was analyzed in the posttest-pretest stage using the descriptive statistics methods and variance analysis by repeated measurement.

                                                                                                                                                                       III.        Findings  

200 mothers were involved in the study by the mean age of 5.26 ±36.76. 16 people were excluded from the study for various reasons and 104 ones completed the sessions. The mean age of their children was 39.63 ± 81.5 months, 54 people were boy (45%) and 66 people girls (55%). 30 people (25%) of the considered fathers had diploma n education, 54 ones (45%) associate degree, 32 ones (7.26%) undergraduate and one (8.0)  had a doctoral degree. ( the education level of two people were not reported). Mothers were 10 (8.3%), 84 (72.5%) and 21 (17.5%) diploma degree, associate degree and undergraduate, respectively, and the education level of one of them  was not reported.

TABLE I.             the changes of sub-indices mean of the abilities and problems questionnaire in the pretest and posttest stage

Mean (Standard Deviation)

Sub-scale indicators (SDQ)

 

pretest

posttest

Score F

Significance level

Over-activity

Boy

(9.65)6.57

(2.57)3.91

2.94

0.091

Girl

(2.84)4.35

(2.80)4

Total

(7.33)5.53

(2.66)3.95

Emotional problems

Boy

(2.30)2.14

(1.52)1.54

3.40

0.07

Girl

(1.92)2.58

(2.26)2.29

Total

(2.13)2.34

(1.93)1.89

Conduct problems

Boy

(1.46)2.57

(1.08)2.22

3.11

0.082

Girl

(1.86)2.83

(2.26)2.58

Total

(1.65)2.69

(1.73)2.39

Problem in having relationship with others

Boy

(1.83)2.54

(1.54)1.71

0.601

0.44

Girl

(1.39)2.32

(1.87)2.77

Total

(1.63)2.43

(1.77)2.21

Desirable behaviors

Boy

(1.88)6.45

(2.08)6.85

0.130

0.720

Girl

(1.66)7.41

(1.76)6.87

Total

(1.83)6.90

(1.92)6.86

 

Total

Boy

(5.22)11.97

(4.29)9.23

7.80

0.007

Girl

(5.73)12.10

(7.28)11.66

Total

(5.42)12.03

(5.96)10.37

 

 

 The behavioral changes of participant’s children  were assessed based on the Abilities and Problems Questionnaire. The SDQ Questionnaire was completed for 64 people (34 boys and 30 girls). The average total score was reduced from 5.42±12.3 to 5.96±10.37at the end of the intervention . The significant changes occurred in the posttest stage was shown significant than the pretest by the variance analysis. (F=14, p<0.05).

The results of statistical comparison of the over-activity, emotional problems, conduct problems, problems in having relationship with peers and desirable behaviors indicators have been shown in Table 1.

The change of parent’s ability in applying the parenting style was assessed through parenting scales. The findings showed that the mean of parenting scale was achieved from 18.74±102.98 to 21.13±81.81 during the intervention which is statistically significant (P=0.001, F=91.25). The result of sub-indices comparison has also been shown in table 2.

The results of being parent scale showed that the general improvement in this scale’s indicator is significant after the interventions (P<0.01, F=12.46). The changes in sub-indices are also presented in table 3.

The results obtained from assessing the parent’s problems before the intervention, during the intervention and after it showed that the mean of problems score is reduced from 13.24±32.56 to 27.20±20 and the current difference is statistically significant (F=21.61, P=0.001).

The mean score of disagreements fields between parents is reduced from 1.65± 27.20 to 1.21± 1.40 (F=59.19, P=0.01).

The mean of adoption score was achieved from 4.88± 21.15 to 21.25± 4.58 in the adoption scale which was not statistically significant.

The total score mean of depression, anxiety and stress indicators was reduced from 17.58±23.75 to 13.15±15.66 and the changes was statistically significant (F=79.25, P<0.01).

Table 4 shows the mentioned indicators scores.

TABLE II.           the changes of sub-indices mean of parenting scale in pretest and posttest stage

Sub-scales

Mean (standard deviation)

 

score

Significance level

Parenting scales

Pretest

posttest

Negligence

(8.21)35.65

(0.73)3.24

(7.60)29.26

(0.78)2.69

52.45

34.77

0.001

0.001

Over-activity

(10.06)30.63

(1.00)3.06

(7.33)22.60

(0.73)2.25

58.89

59.71

0.001

0.001

Verbosity

(6.09)28.59

(0.093)4.09

(6.40)22.59

(0.16)3.34

62.80

22.37

0.001

0.001

Miscellaneous

(3.47)14.43

(8.98)14.63

0.049

N.S*

Total

(18.74)102.98

(0.66)3.40

(21.13)81.81

(2.95)3.07

91.52

1.13

0.001

N.S

*non-significant

TABLE III.         the mean changes of sub-indices of being a parent in pretest and posttest stage

Sub-indices

Mean (standard deviation)

 

Score F

Being a parent scale

pretest

posttest

satisfaction

(7.43)37.74

(5.84)41.48

31.21*

Adequacy

(5.34)28.96

(5.71)32.38

44.07*

Total

(11.47)66.97

(8.42)73.86

46.12*

*P<0.001

TABLE IV.         the mean changes of sub-indices of being a parent in pretest and posttest stage

Indicator

Mean (standard deviation)

 

Score F

pretest

posttest

Depression

(7.09)7.11

(5.66)4.55

25.44*

Anxiety

(5.56)5.45

(4.52)3.37

 

Stress

(7.30)12.41

(5.26)8.41

35.70*

Total

(17.58)23.75

(13.15)15.66

25.79*

*P<0.001

                                                                                                                                                                    IV.        Discussion

This study is significant for applying the constructive upbringing methods in Iranian community concerning getting improved the children’s problems and abilities, parent’s capabilities in training their child, parents agreement, parents problems and the amount of depression, anxiety and stress. The findings of this study can be implemented in improving the parenting styles. These interventions can be resulted in reducing parent’s  depression, anxiety and stress and also reducing the behavioral problems of children. However, reducing the over-activity, emotional and conduct problems and having relationship with peers was not statistically significant in the current study. In the controlled studies (Arnold, O’Leary, Wolff and Acker, 1993; Tehrani doust and colleagues 2004). There are many evidences concerning the effectiveness of family behavioral interventions based on social learning principles to prevent and treat a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems in children. The studies conducted in the past twenty years show that behavioral intervention of family is effective in reducing the conduct behaviors and other behavioral problems in children. It has been shown in the current study that these interventions can generally reduce the emotional and behavioral problems in children

(based on total score change of abilities and problems score). There have been many studies concerning the effectiveness of various aspects of Triple-P program. This program was implemented by Sanders (2003) in the social level and in another study by McTaggart and Sanders in school (2003).

In an another study, Sanders and colleagues (2005) applied an 8 session intervention program by children’s parents which was caused to increasing the constructive skills, reducing the parent-children conflict, increasing the parent’s self-confidence and decreasing depression, anxiety and stress in parents. This method has the ability to be adopted with cultural criteria of various countries. Crisante (2003) trained the employees of daycare  or long-term care centers of children and the parent’s children was underwent counseling at preschool age ( mean age three years) based on the three triple-p by these people. The findings basic of this study was more pleasant experience for parents for being parent, feeling more confident and agreeing  on rules with one’s spouse (Crisante and Ng , 2003). Deam, Myors and Evans (2003) trained 74 nurses, social workers, teachers and welfare staffs for the program level 4. These people had to perform the Triple-P group program each one at least in two groups of parents. 560 parents who had 2-10 year old children were involved in the study and almost half of these people reported that at least one child is affected to behavioral problems. In the mentioned study, the reduction of behavioral problems in children, improving the scale of bring parent, reduction in scores of being a parent problem scale and improving depression, anxiety and stress have been reported. The considered research findings is more bear to those of Hezr. Cann, Matthews and Rogers (2003) showed that the triple-p group therapy causes improving children’s behavior, improving the children’s training methods, improving the sense of adequacy, reducing depression, anxiety and stress and also reducing the differences in parents. Ralph and Sanders (2003) implemented this intervention for 27 children’s parents for 8 weeks and reducing conflict with children, improving in parenting scales, reducing the disagreement between parents, improving the sense of adequacy, management and capability in parents and also reducing depression, anxiety and mental pressure have been reported. Cann, Rogers and Worley (2003) presented these services by telephone in 73 families and showed that counseling had a positive impact on general performance of family and children and causes improving the children’s behaviors, parenting styles, parent’s adequacy and capability, reducing depression, anxiety and mental pressure and improving parent’s compliance.

In an another study, the effect of these interventions were assessed in 83 parents of ADHD children and improving children’s behavior, improving the feelings of adequacy and capability in parents, reducing the negative ways of parenting, conflict between parents, reducing depression, anxiety and mental pressure as well as high satisfaction with the program have been reported (Rogers, Cann and Cameron, 2003). Although the mentioned studies are conducted in various forms and in different communities, the results were almost the same which are compatible the current findings in the Iranian community. While the sessions were hold in presence and it is different from the studies used the group program level 4 by telephone from this point.

Generally speaking, the findings of the current study indicate that applying the constructive training methods in parents causes improving the parenting styles, parent’s satisfaction and adequacy in training children, reducing the disagreements between parents, reducing the problems associated with child’s training and reducing depression, anxiety and mental pressure in parents. Moreover, these methods are effective in reducing behavioral problems and increasing their abilities.

Choosing the subjects among the working employees in hospitals which may have various problems regarding parenting in comparison to employees in other organizations is one of the limitations of this study. Thus, generalizing the results to the whole working community should be done with caution.

While it is necessary that some studies be assessed for the Iranian community. Another limitation of this study was lack of a control group for comparing the changes made in groups. Although changes is widespread in some indicators such as behavior  indicators  in children, but it was not statistically significant, which could be due to low sample size. Thus, it is recommended that studies with large sample size and control group be conducted.

References

 

[1]     Tehrani doust, Mehdi; Shahrvivar, Zahra; Pakbaz, Bahareh, Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Rezaie, Azita ( 2006), “ validity of Persian version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Iranian Children”, Journal of  Cognitive Sciences News,  year 8, No 4, 33-39.

[2]     Tehrani doust, Mehdi; Akaghbanrad, Javad; Dashti, Behnoush; Sahhrivar, Zahra  (2004), “ evaluating the effectiveness of constructive training programs in reducing behavioral problems in children. Paper  presented at the Second International Congress on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry”,

[3]     Arnold, D. S., O'Leary, S. G. wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The parenting scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological assessment, 5, 137-144.

[4]     Cann . w., Rogers, H., & Matthews, J .(2003). Family intervention service program evaluation : A brief report on initial outcomes for families. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2,3.

[5]     Cann , w., Rogers, H.,& Worley, G. (2003). report on a program evaluation of a telephone assisted parenting support service for families living isolated rural areas.australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2.3.

[6]     Crisante, L., & Ng, S. (2003)implementation and process issues in using group triple p with Chinese parents. Preliminary findings. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health , 2,3 .

[7]     Crisante, L. (2003) . Training in parent consulation skills for primary care practitioners in early intervention in the preschool context. Australian e-jurnal of the advancement of mental health, 2,3.

[8]     Dadds, M. R., & powel , M. B. (1991). The relationship of interparental conflict and global matital adjustment to aggression, anciety and immaturity non clinic children.Journal of child psychology, 19, 553-567.

[9]     Deam, C., Myors, K., & Evans, E. (2003). Community – wide implementation of a parenting program program : the south East Sydney positing project. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2.3.

[10]  Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties Questionnaire : A research note. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 33,531-536.

[11]  Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 18, 167-175.

[12]  Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual of the depression , Anxiety and stress scales (2nd.ed.).sydny: psychology foundation Australia.

[13]  Mc Taggart, P., & sanders, M. R. (2003) . the transition to school project : results from the classroom. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health , 2.3.

[14]  Mohawks, A., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self- administered behavioral family intervention for parents of toddlers: Effectiveness and dissemination. Behavior research and therapy, 44, 1839-1848.

[15]  Patterson, J., Mock ford, C., & Stewart – brown, S. (2005). Parent's perceptions of the value of the Webster – Stratton parenting programmer : a qualitative study of a general practive based initiative, child , care, health & development, 31, 53-64.

[16]  Ralph, A., & Sanders, M. R.(2003). Preliminary evaluation of the Group teen triple p program for parents of teenagers making the transition to high school. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2.3.

[17]  Rogers, H., Cann, W., Cameron , D., & Littlefield, L, (2003).

[18]  Evaluation of the Family intervention system for children presenting with characteristics associated with attention deficit Hyperactivity disorder. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2.3.

[19]  Sanders, M. R., Sarnoff, K., & Gardiner , P. (2005). Every family : A public health approach to promoting children's wellbeing , Brief report. Brisbane, Australia : university of Queensland.

[20]  Sanders, M. R. (2002). Parenting interventions and the prevention of serious mental health problems in children. MJA, 177,7,87-92.

[21]  Sanders, M, R. (2003) . the translation of an evidenced. Based parenting program into regular clinical services. Australian e-journal of the advancement of mental health, 2.3.

[22]  Sanders , M. R., & wooly, M. L. (2005). The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices : implications for parent training . child, care, health & development , 31, 65-73.

[23]  Turner , K. M. T., Dadds , C. M., sanders, M. R. (2002. facilitator's manual for group. Milton Australia: triple p international.

[24]  Tuner , K, M. T., & sanders, M. R. (2006).Help when it's needed first : A controlled evaluation of brief , preventive behavioral family intervention in a primary care setting . Behavior Therapy, 37, 131-12.

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Comments (1)
ravanshenasi
1شنبه, 01 بهمن 1390 05:41
salam
سلام آقاي دكتر.مقالات جالب و كلا مطالب مفيدي در زمينه روانشناسي داريد.به نظر من اين سايت را فقط به روانشناسي اختصاص دهيد و بيشتر مقالات و مباحث مرتبط با آن را قرار دهيد تا مطالب سياسي.با تشكر

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